World Trade Centre and One World Trade Centre theme and the meaning of these two as an influence. It’s a September. The month of the disastrous event and I would like to make you to look at it from the angle of logo design. This is the work I have done during my HNC Graphic Design course but is still on top. I had a look into the logos of these two. Please let me know what do you think about it and hope you will enjoy the reading.
What we know about World Trade Center? Probably is mostly known by 9/11 terrorism act but I would like to present other side. What is hiding behind the logo? Why and what idea guided bringing the World Trade Center to the life?
The World Trade Center and One World Trade Center are very influential in historical, political, social, and cultural aspects not only in America but around the world especially after 9/11. There are two big names of architects who created both WTC and One WTC and both subjects were very controversial at the times they were created and developed; however, the 1 WTC have different purpose than WTC had. The dates of 1972 and 2001 can be treated as a border dates between Modernism and Postmodernism in 1972, and between Postmodernism and Hyper Modernism in 2001. WTC was always an inspiration to art, music, movies, design, architecture, and cartoons and influenced the international law against terrorism.
There is not much history to find about the WTC logo design and how it was created. On the logo there are two united towers and it has the same view when upside down. The World Trade Center become great project of united worldwide trade. At that time there were already in place the trading companies and the project was a big risk to develop. The World Trade Center was the complex of seven buildings with the two skyscrapers: The North and South Towers. The designer of both was the young architect Minoru Yamasaki. It was his second big project after Pruitt-Igoe housing. The interesting fact is that these two projects were unlucky for Minoru Yamasaki as both were destroyed. The year of 1972 is the year when the Pruitt-Igoe was demolished, The South Tower was finished, and this is the year I was born.
The time Herb Lubalin created the logo for WTC was the beginning of economic upheaval. In the book ‘’City in The Sky’’, written by New York Times reporters James Glanz and Erik Lipton, we can read that the WTC was a David Rockefeller’s idea. He already had the Rockefeller Center but as he was business smart and he would smell good deal from far away, so he decided he would like to see all international trade and finance in one place. At first Rockefeller hired McKinsay & Co to determine why lower Manhattan is better place than Midtown with already existing businesses. They suggested, to be successful, the WTC should be ‘’unusual in nature and spectacular in proportions to act as an irresistible magnet’’. (City in The Sky, 2020) Especially to prospective tenants. The World Center had to be impressive to attract tenants and make them wanted to spend money on the office placed in WTC.
The idea of the international Trade Center grew during WWII but because of the war it was put on hold for later time. (World Trade Center (1973–2001), 2020)
When the plan of WTC buildings was announced it met a lot of criticism, but everybody agreed it was monumental and impressive comparing to the current building structure in the town. At that time, the buildings were the tallest one in the world, so the designers had to find new architectural solutions and they used new untested materials to build them. That was the weakest point of the design of the Towers which the price was paid few decades later. During the Towers existence they were the most recognised thing in USA. They were a theme used in movies, design, art and even in cartoons. It is very interesting that The Towers were the subjects in catastrophic movies or cartoons predictions, and all of this has been brought after 9/11 especially in so called conspiracy theories.
Since the 9/11 The Towers become a symbol of the fight with terrorism and the law was changed and gives more power to government to invigilation. There are still the spy and conspiracy theories around the WTC destruction especially about 7th Tower which was not touched by plane but collapsed just after the North and South Towers demolition and many people present at the scene heard the explosion just before the building’s fall down. On the You Tube channel there are many videos from that time; some experts talking about the Towers and the attack. There is one interesting book with the very detailed technical information why the Towers collapsed even think their planning included the survival of the plane hit. The book is written by Konstantin Radtchenko, the architect and 3D artist, and has very long title ‘’Conspiracy: Collapse of WTC 1 and WTC 2 Buildings. After Terrorist Attack On September 11, 2001 As Result Of Hidden Ten Inexcusable, Prohibitive And Fatal Mistakes In Design’’. Under his theory the Towers were designed to collapse in near future even without any terrorism intervention. However, in another theory the Towers where destroyed because some people had the business in the WTC demolition. Few theories can be found in the ‘’Loose Change: second edition 2005’’ video produced with unpublished pictures and documents (Loose Change second edition, 2005).
The 9/11 event is the time when hyper modernism was born. It was a picture viewed by millions around the world in life transmissions. Anybody who had a camera, phone, or any devise with ability to record or streaming, the event was broadcasting online for the next few weeks if not months. That time many theories grew without even any support from scientists or experts. The event created many new jargons and words which stepped into the language cannon permanently, for example Ground Zero, 9/11 or The Pile. It has an iconographic and historical meaning.
It was shortly clear there must be something quickly rebuilt. There were a practical and sentimental reasons. The decision has been made quickly and now there is the new skyscraper named One World Trade Center and few constructions which are monuments as remembrance of WTC victims. There is a complex of skyscrapers, ”a memorial, a museum, a church, a transit centre, bridges, a plaza, a park, and stores. The World Trade Center is
a new city within the city.’’ (One World Trade Center. Biography of the building, 2020). The WTC become a symbol of freedom, independence, and unity. It became new World Art Center.
Behind the new logo is more to tell than about the old one. The company which created new logo faced a big struggle how to refer to the logo design. How to brand something with so many conflicting ideas. The design itself shows the letter W which states for ‘’World Trade Center’’ and ‘’Westfield World Trade Center’’. The five blocks stand for five towers included in whole complex of WTC. ‘’The slant of the top half of the logo is at a precise 17.76-degree angle, a hat tip to 1 World Trade Center’s 1,776-foot height.’’ (Wilson, 2014). The two empty spaces in the top half of the logo refer to Tribute in Light, which is an annual installation of illumination creating two vertical light columns which represent Twin Towers. It is an ‘’iconic symbol to honours victims of 9/11 and celebrate unbreakable spirit.’’ (Tribute in Light | National September 11 Memorial & Museum, 2020)
The bottom two columns of the logo refer to National September 11 Memorial. The Memorial include two pools created to honour the people who lost their life in the Towers. There is another meaning to the logo. It is including the trident that was the part of the design element of the base of the Twin Towers.
Many people are saying that the new logo is confusing, but many can admit that all the idea of the WTC is confusing. In the past it was clearly the finance and trade only purpose. Today it is the performing art centre, museum, memorial and business centre. The new 1WTC is an emotionally and technically demanding project and since 9/11 will never be just a Trading Center. It is and will be a worldwide icon. Very emotional for many reasons. It is even the point that people on social media compare current situation of Covid-19 to the 9/11 event.
These two subjects are so different and at the same time strongly connected. The 1WTC would never exist without the WTC and its tragedy. It is still very emotional to many people. It has strong influence on media. We can see it mentioned in series and movies such as X Files, CSI NY, and many others. The resonance of WTC and the way the subject it is perceived changed in the movies and studies since 9/11. Before it has been shown as catastrophic and comic theme in movies and cartoons but afterwards it is shown as painful and emotional experience. The humoresque graphic seems being inappropriate. It is the subject in public safety debate. It is personal experience to many people worldwide, not only to people who lost the closest one in the event. Many people lost their jobs
as the head offices of the companies were placed in WTC, but departments were on different continents, for example in Europe and Asia. There is so many music artists who use the WTC tragedy in their production.
If I would like to compare these two logos the first one was created clearly for the finance purpose and it had not too much influence but the current one has totally different meaning. The company that created the logo did not have an easy work. The new logo means much more than just the brand. The logo is the whole idea behind the creation. Each building in World Trade Center has its own logo but this logo is including all aspects of business, creativity, cooperation, memory, history, tragedy, freedom, social and political impact.
On these two logo examples we can see how complex it can be to create the logo; how was the modernism and postmodernism, and how these two movements are different from hyper modernism. Everything is simplified but the meaning of work is more complicated by its history, influence, and complexity of the subject.
It looks like the more complicated situation; the more simplicity people are looking for.
Bing.com. 2020. David Childs Architecture – Bing Images. [online] Available at: https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=da-vid+childs+architecture&qpvt=david+childs+architecture&FORM=IGRE [Accessed 9 April 2020]. City In The Sky. Times Books, pp.13, 14, 48, Bing.com. 2020. Landor Associates 2014 1Wtc Logo – Bing. [online] Available at: https://www.bing.com/im-ages/search?view=de-tailV2&ccid=y%2fN5X6fZ&id=0222529B2A11BB5AFBC8EE3189593CF9DFCD84DA&thid=OIP.y_N5X6fZkZxwlUe2SgTVtgHaEK&mediaurl=https%3a%2f%2fknolaust.com%2fapp%2fwp-content%2fuploads%2f2014%2f08%2flogo_worldtrade-center.png&exph=900&expw=1600&q=landor+associates+2014+1wtc+logo&simid=607990317410946236&selectedIn-dex=4&ajaxhist=0 [Accessed 1 May 2020]. En.wikipedia.org. 2020. World Trade Center (1973–2001). [online] Available at: https://en.wikipe-dia.org/wiki/World_Trade_Center_%281973–2001%29 [Accessed 16 May 2020].
Loose Change second edition. 2005. [DVD] USA: Dylan Avery, Jason Bermas, Mathew Brown, and Korey Rowe.
911memorial.org. 2020. Social Media Followers Share Memories Of Twin Towers | National September 11 Memorial & Museum. [online] Available at: https://www.911memorial.org/connect/blog/social-media-followers-share-memories-twin-towers [Accessed 28 April 2020].
911memorial.org. 2020. Tribute In Light | National September 11 Memorial & Museum. [online] Available at: https://www.911memorial.org/visit/memorial/tribute-light [Accessed 17 May 2020]. 2020 One World Trade Center. Biography Of The Building. New York, Boston, London: Judith Dupre, p.24.
The Missive. 2020. The Missive. [online] Available at: https://influx.themissive.com/post/31336413256/herb-lubalin [Ac-cessed 16 May 2020].
ThoughtCo. 2020. Designs Of David Childs – 1WTC And More. [online] Available at: https://www.thoughtco.com/david-m-childs-portfolio-of-architecture-178499 [Accessed 9 April 2020].
Wilson, M., 2014. The World Trade Center Has A New, Very Confusing Logo. [online] Fast Company. Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/3034384/the-world-trade-center-has-a-new-very-confusing-logo [Accessed 11 May 2020].
Alan-shapiro.com. 2020. What Is Hyper-Modernism?, By Alan N. Shapiro « Alan N. Shapiro, Visiting Professor In Transdisciplinary Design, Folkwang University Of The Arts, Essen, Germany. [online] Available at: http://www.alan-shapiro.com/what-is-hyper-modernism-by-alan-n-shapiro/ [Accessed 28 April 2020].
All That’s Interesting. 2020. Inside The 9/11 Photo So Gruesome Newspapers Could Only Publish It Once. [online] Available at: https://allthatsinteresting.com/the-falling-man [Accessed 17 April 2020].[online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SMDkvJRHaNM [Accessed 4 April 2020]. 2020[online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-10vg90ZIy8season [Accessed 4 April 2020]. 2020[online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tz6Tf5bs6po [Accessed 4 April 2020]. 2020[online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LpfldDF52oI [Accessed 9 April 2020]. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNNJrHR53ZA&feature=emb_title [Accessed 28 April 2020]. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Atgarj1qFI [Accessed 17 April 2020]. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6vhVHtC8vA [Accessed 28 April 2020].
Bing.com. 2020. Wtc In Photography – Bing Images. [online] Available at: https://www.bing.com/im-ages/search?q=wtc+in+photography&qpvt=wtc+in+photography&FORM=IGRE [Accessed 4 April 2020].
Bing.com. 2020. Wtc In Graphic Design – Bing Images. [online] Available at: https://www.bing.com/im-ages/search?q=wtc+in+graphic+design&qpvt=wtc+in+graphic+design&FORM=IGRE [Accessed 5 April 2020].
Bing.com. 2020. Minoru Yamasaki – Bing Video. [online] Available at: https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=minoru+ya-masaki&qpvt=minoru+yamasaki&FORM=VDRE [Accessed 5 April 2020].
Bing.com. 2020. Yamasaki Architect – Bing Images. [online] Available at: https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=yama-saki+architect&qpvt=yamasaki+architect&FORM=IGRE [Accessed 9 April 2020].
Bing.com. 2020. Wtc In Humour – Bing Images. [online] Available at: https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=wtc+in+hu-mour&qpvt=wtc+in+humour&FORM=IGRE [Accessed 17 April 2020].
Bing.com. 2020. Tower 7 – Bing Video. [online] Available at: https://www.bing.com/vid-eos/search?q=tower+7&ru=%2fsearch%3fq%3dtower%2b7%26form%3dEDGEAR%26qs%3dPF%26cvid%3dca1b053381e04c8daceaa60d4580bfbd%26cc%3dGB%26setlang%3den-US%26plvar%3d0%26PC%3dLCTS&view=de-tail&mid=31C7F6841C92D7EFCD2331C7F6841C92D7EFCD23&rvsmid=31D6FE706AA9A5C136F431D6FE706AA9A5C136F4&FORM=VDQVAP [Accessed 28 April 2020].
CRASH Magazine. 2020. DISCUSSING THE HYPER MODERN ORDER: OUR IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW WITH PHILOSOPHER GILLES LIPOVETSKY AND FRANK PERRIN, FOUNDER OF CRASH MAGAZINE – CRASH Magazine. [online] Available at: https://www.crash.fr/discussing-the-hyper-modern-order-our-in-depth-interview-with-philosopher-gilles-lipovetsky-and-frank-perrin-founder-of-crash-magazine/ [Accessed 28 April 2020].
En.wikipedia.org. 2020. David Childs. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Childs [Accessed 9 April 2020]. En.wikipedia.org. 2020. Windows On The World. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Win-dows_on_the_World [Accessed 17 April 2020].
En.wikipedia.org. 2020. Hypermodernism (Art). [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypermodernism_(art) [Accessed 28 April 2020].
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2020. Minoru Yamasaki | American Architect. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/bi-ography/Minoru-Yamasaki [Accessed 5 April 2020].
En.wikipedia.org. 2020. List Of Songs About The September 11 Attacks. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipe-dia.org/wiki/List_of_songs_about_the_September_11_attacks [Accessed 28 April 2020].
Facebook Watch. 2020. Coronavirus – What Has It Revealed?. [online] Available at: https://www.face-book.com/21641548176/posts/10157126354943177/ [Accessed 28 April 2020].
Google.co.uk. 2020. [online] Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/search?sxsrf=ALeKk00Dq-GQcKZ09xxOhJsF_skrWrImPg:1584483916159&q=wtc+influence+in+graphic+de-sign&tbm=isch&source=univ&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiX_uXHxqLoAhXEoFwKHbaaD3MQsAR6BAgHEAE&biw=1200&bih=859 [Accessed 17 April 2020].
LeBeau, P., 2020. American Airlines CEO Says The Coronavirus Crisis Is Worse Than 9/11 For The Industry. [online] CNBC. Availa-ble at: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/19/american-airlines-ceo-says-the-coronavirus-crisis-is-worse-than-911-for-the-industry.html [Accessed 28 April 2020. Moore, R., 2020. Pruitt-Igoe: Death Of An American Housing Dream. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2012/feb/26/pruitt-igoe-myth-film-review [Accessed 28 April 2020].
911memorial.org. 2020. About The Memorial | National September 11 Memorial & Museum. [online] Available at: https://www.911memorial.org/visit/memorial/about-memorial [Accessed 17 May 2020].
New York Post. 2020. 9/11 Responders And Survivors At Risk For Contracting Coronavirus, Officials Warn. [online] Available at: https://nypost.com/2020/03/09/9-11-responders-and-survivors-at-risk-for-contracting-coronavirus-officials-warn/ [Ac-cessed 28 April 2020].
Npg.si.edu. 2020. Minoru Yamasaki, World Trade Center Architect | National Portrait Gallery. [online] Available at: https://npg.si.edu/blog/minoru-yamasaki-world-trade-center-architect [Accessed 9 April 2020].
Owlcation. 2020. Architect Of Disaster: Minoru Yamasaki. [online] Available at: https://owlcation.com/humanities/Architect-of-Disaster-Minoru-Yamasaki [Accessed 5 April 2020].
911research.wtc7.net. 2020. 9-11 Research: Towers’ Design Parameters. [online] Available at: http://www.911re-search.wtc7.net/wtc/analysis/design.html [Accessed 17 April 2020].
Route1print.co.uk. 2020. [online] Available at: https://www.route1print.co.uk/design-hub/design-inspiration/20-famous-graphic-designers-who-changed-the-world [Accessed 17 April 2020].
SFChronicle.com. 2020. Coronavirus Closes Many Bay Area Hotels: ‘Worse Than 9/11 Or 2008’. [online] Available at: https://www.sfchronicle.com/business/article/Coronavirus-puts-San-Francisco-s-hotels-in-15141953.php [Accessed 28 April 2020].
The Real Deal New York. 2020. David Childs – The Real Deal. [online] Available at: https://therealdeal.com/closings/david-childs/ [Accessed 9 April 2020]. The Week UK. 2020. The Becoming Of The World Trade Center. [online] Available at: https://www.theweek.co.uk/poli-tics/28195/becoming-world-trade-center [Accessed 17 April 2020].
ThoughtCo. 2020. Architect David Childs Rebuilds NYC. [online] Available at: https://www.thoughtco.com/david-m-childs-design-partner-177377 [Accessed 9 April 2020].
Underconsideration.com. 2020. W Marks The Spot. [online] Available at: https://www.underconsideration.com/brand-new/archives/new_logo_for_world_trade_center_by_landor.php [Accessed 17 May 2020].
Wtc.com. 2020. Media – News, Photos & Videos || World Trade Center. [online] Available at: https://www.wtc.com/media [Ac-cessed 28 April 2020].
Wtc.com. 2020. History – Timeline || World Trade Center. [online] Available at: https://wtc.com/about/history [Accessed 4 April 2020].
Yamasaki-inc.com. 2020. About Us – YAMASAKI. [online] Available at: http://yamasaki-inc.com/about-us/ [Accessed 5 April 2020].
2020 ”City In The Sky.” Times Books, p.48.
The word ‘’Center’’ is an original, correct spelling in American English